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108th Senate Rank Ordering

Updated 26 October 2004


Below is the rank ordering of the 108th Senate as of 26 October 2004. This ordering was produced by the Optimal Classification algorithm described in:

"Non-Parametric Unfolding of Binary Choice Data." Political Analysis, 8:211-237, 2000.

The scaling program that performs the rank ordering along with some examples can be downloaded from my

Optimal Classification (OC) Scaling Program Page

The program that performs the rank ordering is also incorporated in my Quadratic-Normal (QN) Program:

Quadratic-Normal Scaling Program With Example Output Files (Zip File)

The QN Program is also publicly available from the Political Analysis website.

To see how OC works in one dimension, go to this page:

How Optimal Classification Works in One Dimension

To see how OC works in two or more dimensions, go to this page:

How Optimal Classification Works in Two or More Dimensions (Under Construction)

There were 670 roll calls cast in the 108th Senate as of 11 October 2004 of which 551 roll calls had at least 0.5% or better in the minority and were used in the scaling. The rank ordering is based upon these 551 roll calls. Note that tied ranks are allowed.

The overall correct classification is 94.2% with an aggregate proportional reduction in error of (APRE) .840. In the ordering below, the number just to the right of the Senator's name is the classification error and the number to the right of that is the total number of roll calls cast by the Senator. For example, placing Senator Boxer at rank 1.0 only resulted in 20 classification errors out of a total of 531 votes cast. The proportion correct is 511/531 = .962 (which is shown just to the left of the rank).

The two parties are almost perfectly separated in the liberal-conservative ordering. Senator Miller of Georgia is in the midst of the Moderate Republicans at the rank of 59.5.

 108 15011 71 CALIFOR D BOXER         20  531   0.962   1.000
 108 10808  3 MASSACH D KENNEDY, ED   20  525   0.962   2.000
 108 14914 12 NEW JER D LAUTENBERG    26  543   0.952   3.000
 108 29142  5 RHODE I D REED          24  546   0.956   4.000
 108 40104 12 NEW JER D CORZINE       26  540   0.952   5.000
 108 11204 48 SOUTH C D HOLLINGS      65  514   0.874   6.000
 108 15503 43 FLORIDA D GRAHAM, BOB   29  431   0.933   7.000
 108 13039 52 MARYLAN D SARBANES      11  538   0.980   9.500
 108 94240  6 VERMONT I JEFFORDS      68  540   0.874   9.500
 108 14230 31 IOWA    D HARKIN        26  530   0.951   9.500
 108  1366 56 WEST VI D BYRD, ROBER   51  534   0.904   9.500
 108 14307  6 VERMONT D LEAHY         32  542   0.941  12.000
 108 14213  1 CONNECT D DODD          25  542   0.954  13.000
 108 14400 82 HAWAII  D AKAKA         31  520   0.940  14.500
 108 14709 23 MICHIGA D LEVIN, CARL   20  551   0.964  14.500
 108 15021 21 ILLINOI D DURBIN        22  548   0.960  16.000
 108  4812 82 HAWAII  D INOUYE        39  499   0.922  17.500
 108 49309 25 WISCONS D FEINGOLD      52  551   0.906  17.500
 108 14922 56 WEST VI D ROCKEFELLER   39  548   0.929  19.000
 108 49902 47 NORTH C D EDWARDS       10  309   0.968  20.000
 108 14920  3 MASSACH D KERRY, JOHN    2  163   0.988  21.500
 108 40105 13 NEW YOR D CLINTON       25  536   0.953  21.500
 108 14440 52 MARYLAN D MIKULSKI      14  543   0.974  23.000
 108 40101 33 MINNESO D DAYTON        41  539   0.924  24.000
 108 49308 73 WASHING D MURRAY        26  545   0.952  26.000
 108 29732 23 MICHIGA D STABENOW      20  551   0.964  26.000
 108 39310 73 WASHING D CANTWELL      33  549   0.940  26.000
 108 14871 72 OREGON  D WYDEN         38  549   0.931  28.000
 108 49300 71 CALIFOR D FEINSTEIN     44  542   0.919  29.000
 108 15703 25 WISCONS D KOHL          32  544   0.941  30.500
 108 14651 43 FLORIDA D NELSON, CLA   45  543   0.917  30.500
 108 14858 13 NEW YOR D SCHUMER       34  550   0.938  33.000
 108 15704  1 CONNECT D LIEBERMAN     28  345   0.919  33.000
 108 14101 11 DELAWAR D BIDEN         44  522   0.916  33.000
 108 14912 66 NEW MEX D BINGAMAN      46  544   0.915  35.000
 108 15054 65 NEVADA  D REID          30  532   0.944  36.000
 108 14617 37 SOUTH D D DASCHLE       24  549   0.956  37.000
 108 15425 37 SOUTH D D JOHNSON       25  514   0.951  38.000
 108 14812 36 NORTH D D DORGAN        23  547   0.958  39.000
 108 15502 36 NORTH D D CONRAD        45  547   0.918  40.000
 108 40100 11 DELAWAR D CARPER        61  541   0.887  41.000
 108 49901 22 INDIANA D BAYH          59  544   0.892  42.000
 108     0 42 ARKANSA D PRYOR         34  549   0.938  43.000
 108 29305 42 ARKANSA D LINCOLN       24  548   0.956  44.000
 108 49702 45 LOUISIA D LANDRIEU      33  542   0.939  45.000
 108 14203 64 MONTANA D BAUCUS        53  541   0.902  46.000
 108 13056 45 LOUISIA D BREAUX        53  541   0.902  47.000
 108 40103 35 NEBRASK D NELSON, BEN   38  534   0.929  48.000
 108 49905  5 RHODE I R CHAFEE        89  546   0.837  49.000
 108 14661  2 MAINE   R SNOWE         58  551   0.895  50.000
 108 49703  2 MAINE   R COLLINS       50  551   0.909  51.000
 108 14910 14 PENNSYL R SPECTER       59  532   0.889  52.000
 108 49903 24 OHIO    R VOINOVICH     40  540   0.926  53.000
 108 15020 24 OHIO    R DEWINE        33  551   0.940  54.000
 108 49705 72 OREGON  R SMITH, GORD   28  528   0.947  55.000
 108     0 33 MINNESO R COLEMAN       23  548   0.958  56.000
 108 14506 22 INDIANA R LUGAR         22  544   0.960  57.000
 108 14712 40 VIRGINI R WARNER        34  547   0.938  58.000
 108 14852 32 KANSAS  R ROBERTS       18  549   0.967  59.500
 108 49904 44 GEORGIA D MILLER        24  463   0.948  59.500
 108 29523 32 KANSAS  R BROWNBACK     23  537   0.957  61.500
 108 95407 62 COLORAD R CAMPBELL      38  498   0.924  61.500
 108     0 81 ALASKA  R MURKOWSKI     31  527   0.941  63.500
 108 49307 67 UTAH    R BENNETT       16  538   0.970  63.500
 108 49306 49 TEXAS   R HUTCHISON,    48  545   0.912  65.000
 108 49704 35 NEBRASK R HAGEL         29  533   0.946  66.500
 108 29512 44 GEORGIA R CHAMBLISS     20  533   0.962  66.500
 108     0 34 MISSOUR R TALENT        20  548   0.964  68.000
 108 49900 21 ILLINOI R FITZGERALD    43  543   0.921  69.000
 108 14226 31 IOWA    R GRASSLEY      15  551   0.973  70.500
 108     0 47 NORTH C R DOLE          25  546   0.954  70.500
 108 14009 46 MISSISS R COCHRAN       13  551   0.976  72.000
 108 12109 81 ALASKA  R STEVENS       22  549   0.960  73.500
 108 94659 41 ALABAMA R SHELBY        29  542   0.946  73.500
 108 49502 54 TENNESS R FRIST         14  551   0.975  76.000
 108 15501 34 MISSOUR R BOND          20  547   0.963  76.000
 108 14103 66 NEW MEX R DOMENICI      18  503   0.964  76.000
 108 14921 51 KENTUCK R MCCONNELL      9  539   0.983  78.000
 108 29148 40 VIRGINI R ALLEN         25  550   0.955  79.000
 108     0 54 TENNESS R ALEXANDER     23  543   0.958  80.000
 108 14503 67 UTAH    R HATCH         18  550   0.967  81.000
 108 15406 51 KENTUCK R BUNNING       10  536   0.981  82.000
 108 15701 64 MONTANA R BURNS         19  544   0.965  83.000
 108 14031 46 MISSISS R LOTT          24  534   0.955  84.000
 108 29345 63 IDAHO   R CRAPO         16  543   0.971  85.500
 108 14809 63 IDAHO   R CRAIG         17  544   0.969  85.500
 108 15424 53 OKLAHOM R INHOFE        16  536   0.970  87.000
 108     0 49 TEXAS   R CORNYN        15  544   0.972  88.000
 108 15633 68 WYOMING R THOMAS        23  544   0.958  89.000
 108 49706 68 WYOMING R ENZI          25  549   0.954  90.000
 108 14826  4 NEW HAM R GREGG         53  543   0.902  91.000
 108 29566 48 SOUTH C R GRAHAM        34  542   0.937  92.000
 108 29740  4 NEW HAM R SUNUNU        31  527   0.941  93.500
 108 29141 14 PENNSYL R SANTORUM      24  543   0.956  93.500
 108 29108 62 COLORAD R ALLARD        18  549   0.967  95.000
 108 29537 65 NEVADA  R ENSIGN        39  538   0.928  96.500
 108 15039 61 ARIZONA R MCCAIN        88  540   0.837  96.500
 108 49700 41 ALABAMA R SESSIONS      20  544   0.963  98.000
 108 14908 53 OKLAHOM R NICKLES, DO   10  548   0.982  99.000
 108 15429 61 ARIZONA R KYL           21  545   0.961 100.000


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