Attention: We recently changed the way that we present the vote totals for each roll call. We no longer include paired votes or the pseudo-votes of presidents in our reported totals. The new totals should now match those officially reported. Paired votes and the pseudo-votes continue to be included in the plots, maps, and enumerations of the voting on each roll call.
Joseph Rainey (R-SC), born into slavery, was the first African-American elected to the House of Representatives.